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Inside the Egg Processing Industry: Navigating the Journey from Farm to Table

Eggs are a staple in kitchens worldwide, renowned for their versatility and nutritional value. However, the journey from a farm to your breakfast table involves a complex and fascinating process within the egg processing industry. In the United States, this industry plays a pivotal role in ensuring a consistent supply of eggs while adhering to stringent quality and safety standards. Let’s take a closer look at the various stages of egg processing and the key players involved.

  1. Egg Production and Collection

The process begins on egg farms, where hens lay eggs in controlled environments designed to optimize egg quality and safety. These facilities, whether conventional or cage-free, prioritize the well-being of the hens and the quality of eggs produced. Eggs are collected multiple times a day, typically by automated systems, ensuring minimal handling and reduced risk of contamination. Some of the country’s biggest egg producers are Cal-Maine Foods (43.97 million of hens), Rose Acre Farms (25.07 million of hens), Hillandale Farms (17.75 million of hens).1

  1. Cleaning and Grading

After collection, the eggs go through a thorough cleaning process. Any dirt, manure, or contaminants are removed using specialized equipment that washes the eggs gently without compromising their structural integrity. Once cleaned, the eggs are graded based on factors like size, weight, and quality. This grading process ensures that consumers receive uniform and consistent products.

  1. Candling and Quality Control

Candling is a traditional method used to assess the interior quality of eggs. It involves placing an egg in front of a bright light to reveal any defects such as cracks, blood spots, or abnormalities in the egg’s contents. Modern egg processing facilities often use automated candling machines to efficiently examine a large number of eggs. Eggs that do not meet quality standards are removed from the processing line.

  1. Packaging

Following grading and quality control, the eggs are carefully packaged. The packaging serves multiple purposes: it protects the eggs from damage, provides information such as expiration dates, and can even include sustainability and welfare information to meet consumers’ growing demand for transparency. Packaging options range from traditional cardboard cartons to eco-friendly alternatives. The eggs that do not get packaged to be sold as shell eggs in stores, are processed with the use of a wide variety of egg processing machines, such as commercial egg breakers and separators, after which they can be made into other egg products, such as pasteurized liquid egg, egg whites, powdered egg, etc.

  1. Pasteurization

One of the most critical steps in the egg processing industry is pasteurization. This process involves subjecting eggs to specific temperature and time conditions to eliminate harmful bacteria like Salmonella while preserving their nutritional value and taste. Pasteurized eggs are crucial for industries like food service, where raw or undercooked eggs might be used in dishes like hollandaise sauce or Caesar salad dressing.

  1. Distribution and Retail

Once pasteurized and packaged, eggs are distributed to retailers, restaurants, and food manufacturers. An efficient distribution network ensures that eggs reach their intended destinations in a timely manner, maintaining their freshness and quality. Retailers carefully manage their egg stocks to provide customers with the best possible products.

  1. Consumer Education and Food Safety

Consumer education is a significant aspect of the egg processing industry. It’s essential for consumers to understand proper egg handling, storage, and cooking techniques to minimize the risk of foodborne illnesses. The industry plays a role in providing clear instructions on egg cartons and sharing food safety guidelines through various channels.


The egg processing industry in the United States is a dynamic and intricate system that ensures a consistent supply of high-quality eggs for consumers across the country. From the careful collection and grading of eggs to the rigorous processes of cleaning, pasteurization, and packaging, every step in the journey contributes to delivering safe and nutritious eggs to our tables. As consumer preferences evolve, the industry continues to adapt, embracing sustainability, animal welfare, and food safety practices to meet the demands of an ever-changing market.

  1. Meredith Dawson, The largest US egg-producing companies of 2023 (WATTPoultry, 2023) ↩︎

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